Faculty

 

Head of the Department of Physiology 


 

 

Prof K Ravi

 

 

 

Krishnan Ravi is currently serving as Professor and Heads the Department of Physiology at V.P. Chest Institute, University of Delhi, Delhi. He obtained his M.Sc., (Human Physiology) degree from JIPMER, Pondicherry and Ph.D., degree from the Faculty of Medical Sciences, University of Delhi. He is involved in teaching and research in basic and applied physiology for more than three decades. He was a post-doctoral fellow at the University of Alberta, Edmonton, Canada from 1986-1990 and received the ASTRA award from the Canadian Thoracic Society. He has been a Visiting Scientist at the Division of Cardiology, University of California, Davis, USA on five occasions and has published research papers, reviews and monographs in reputed national and international journals and written chapters in books. He is the first one to study the properties of airway rapidly adapting receptors (RARs) and report the existence of the type J receptors in the non-human primate. His findings demonstrate the functional significance of RARs in asthma, left ventricular dysfunction, cigarette smoke inhalation and high altitude pulmonary congestion/edema and establish their role in dyspneic sensation associated with cardiopulmonary diseases. He has discovered a new reflex namely the “pulmonary renal reflex”. He is a leading expert in the area of ‘pulmonary vagal sensory receptors’. His interest in the field “Sleep Apnea” has resulted in contributions which implicate anti-oxidant intake as a useful therapeutic option in patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. He has revised the Section ‘Respiration’ for Best & Taylor’s PHYSIOLOGICAL BASIS OF MEDICAL PRACTICE, 13th Edition.  

 

 

 

b) Research Areas

 

 

 

1. Cardiorespiratory reflexes in health and disease

 

 

 

2. High altitude physiology and lung receptors

 

 

 

3. Neuronal circuits in high altitude pulmonary edema

 

 

 

4. Vagal projections to the hypothalamus

 

 

 

5. Sleep apnea

 

 

 

c) Research projects:

 

 

 

i) Ongoing:

 

 

 

1. Brain Nitric Oxide and High altitude Stress (CARS project, supported by DIPAS, Delhi, 2010-2013)

 

 

 

2. Higher Nervous Control of Pulmonary Renal Reflex (CSIR project, 2012-2015)

 

 

 

ii) Completed:

 

 

 

 

1. Responsiveness of airway rapidly adapting receptors to cigarette smoke inhalation in normal and sensitized rabbits. (ICMR project, 2005-2008)

 

 

 

2. Behaviour of vagal sensory receptors of rabbits during high altitude exposure. (DIPAS Project from 2005-2008).

 

 

 

3. Behaviour of pulmonary vagal sensory receptors with myelinated afferents during oxidative stress induced airway hyper-reactivity and its modulation by anti-oxidants in guinea pigs. (DST Project from 2005-2009).

 

 

 

4. High altitude simulation on rapidly adapting receptors (RAR) activity.(DIPAS project from 2009-2011).

 

 

 

5. Correlation between hypoxia /restraint responses and NO ergic mechanism (DIPAS Project from 2008-2009).

 

 

 

d) List of Publications:

 

 

 

1. Paintal, A.S. and Ravi, K. (1980). The relative location of low and higher threshold pulmonary stretch receptors. Journal of Physiology (Lond), 307: p. 50.

 

 

2. Anand, A., Dev, N.B., Paintal, A.S. and Ravi, K. (1984). Reflex effects elicited after injecting a local anaesthetic into the pericardial sacs of cats and dogs. Journal of Physiology (Lond.), 358: p. 125.

 

 

3. Ravi, K. (1985). Effect of carbon dioxide on the activity of slowly and rapidly adapting pulmonary stretch receptors in cats. Journal of the Autonomic Nervous System, 12: 267-277.

 

 

4. Ravi, K. (1986). Distribution and location of slowly adapting pulmonary stretch receptors in the airways of cats. Journal of the Autonomic Nervous System, 15: 205-216.

 

 

5. Fahim, M and Ravi, K. (1986). The effect of acetylstrophanthidin on the responsiveness of left atrial type B receptors to saline infusion and veratrine injection in anesthetized cats. Pflug. Arch. European Journal of Physiology, 407: 299-304.

 

 

6. Ravi, K. and Fahim, M. (1986). Rhythmic contractile activity of the pulmonary artery studied in vivo in cats. J. of Autonomic Nervous System, 18: 33-37.

 

 

7. Kappagoda, C.T., Ravi, K and Teo, K.K. (1987). Responses of rapidly adapting and slowly adapting pulmonary stretch receptors to pulmonary lymphatic obstruction and pulmonary congestion in dogs. Journal of Physiology (Lond), 390: p. 181.

 

 

8. Kappagoda, C.T. Man, G.C.W., Ravi, K and Teo, K.K. (1988) (authors’ names in alphabetical order). Reflex tracheal contraction during pulmonary venous congestion in the dog. Journal of Physiology (Lond), 402: 335-346.

 

 

9. Ravi, K., Teo K.K. and Kappagoda, C.T. (1988). Stimulation of rapidly adapting pulmonary stretch receptors by pulmonary lymphatic obstruction in dogs. Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology, 66: 630-636.

 

 

10. Ravi, K. and Dev, N.B. (1988). Metoclopramide blocks the phenyl diguanide and 5-hydroxy-tryptamine induced cardiorespiratory reflexes in cats and dogs. Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology, 66: 776-782.

 

 

11. Ravi, K. (1988). Role of vagal and sympathetic afferents in reflex respiratory responses to capsaicin in dogs. Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology, 66: 946-950.

 

 

12. Kappagoda, C.T. and Ravi, K. (1988). Effect of a decrease in plasma protein concentration on rapidly adapting receptor activity. Journal of Physiology (Lond), 407: p. 42.

 

 

13. Kappagoda, C.T., Ravi, K and Teo, K.K. (1989). (authors’ names in alphabetical order). Effect of pulmonary venous congestion on respiratory rate in dogs. Journal of Physiology (Lond), 408: 115-128.

 

 

14. Kappagoda, C.T. and Ravi, K. (1989) (authors’ names in alphabetical order). Plasmapheresis affects the responses of slowly and rapidly adapting airway receptors to pulmonary congestion in dogs. Journal of Physiology (Lond), 416: 79-91.

 

 

15. Ravi, K., Teo, K.K. and Kappagoda, C.T. (1989). Action of histamine on the rapidly adapting airway receptors in the dog. Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology, 67: 1499-1505.

 

 

16. Ravi, K. and Kappagoda, C.T. (1989). Cardiac receptors and renal blood flow: A mini review. Nigerian Journal of Physiological Sciences, 2: 79-90.

 

 

17. Ravi, K. and Kappagoda, C.T.(1990). Reflex responses during pulmonary venous congestion – role of vagal afferents. News in Physiological Sciences, 5: 95-99.

 

 

18. Hargreaves, M., Ravi, K. and Kappagoda, C.T. (1991). Responses of slowly and rapidly adapting receptors in the airway of rabbits to changes in the Starling forces. Journal of Physiology (Lond), 432: 81-97.

 

 

19. Hargreaves, M., Ravi, K. Senaratne, M.P.J. and Kappagoda, C.T. (1992). Responses of airway rapidly adapting receptors to bradykinin before and after administration of enalapril in rabbits. Clinical Sciences, 83: 399-407.

 

 

20. Ravi, K. and Kappagoda, C.T. (1992). Responses of pulmonary C –fibre and rapidly adapting receptor afferents to pulmonary oedema in dogs. Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology, 70: 68-76.

 

 

21. Hargreaves, M., Ravi, K and Kappagoda, C.T. (1993). Effect of bradykinin on respiratory rate in anaesthetized rabbits: role of rapidly adapting receptors. Journal of Physiology (Lond), 468: 501-513.

 

 

22. Ravi, K., Bonham, A.C. and Kappagoda, C.T. (1994). Effect of pulmonary lymphatic obstruction and plasmapheresis on respiratory rate in rabbits. Journal of Physiology (Lond), 480 (1): 161-169.

 

 

23. Ravi, K., Kappagoda, C.T. and Bonham, A.C. (1994). Pulmonary venous congestion enhances the responses of lung rapidly adapting receptors to cigarette smoke inhalation in the rabbit. Journal of Applied Physiology, 77 (6): 2633-2640.

 

 

24. Ravi, K., Singh, M and Julka, D.B. (1995). Properties of rapidly adapting receptors of the airways in monkeys (Macaca mulatta). Respiration Physiology, 99: 51-62.

 

 

25. Bonham, A.C., Ravi, K., Wilson, C.G., Zhang, Z. and Kappagoda, C.T. (1995). Pulmonary venous congestion augments respiratory motoneuronal responses to cigarette smoke in rabbit. Journal of Applied Physiology, 78(3) : 1145-1157.

 

 

26. Bonham, A.C., Kott, K.S., Ravi, K., Kappagoda, C.T. and Joad, J.P. (1996). Substance P contributes to rapidly adapting receptor responses to pulmonary venous congestion in rabbits. Journal of Physiology (Lond), 493(1) : 229-238.

 

 

27. Campbell, H., Ravi, K., Bravo, E. and Kappagoda, C.T. (1996). Effect of diazinon PLUS on rapidly adapting receptors in the rabbit. Journal of Applied Physiology, 81(6): 2604-2610.

 

 

28. Ravi, K. and Singh, M. (1996). Role of lung C- fibres in the cardiorespiratory effects of capsaicin in monkeys. Respiration Physiology, 106: 137-151.

 

 

29. Ravi, K., Bravo, E. and Kappagoda, C.T. (1997). Effect of pulmonary lymphatic obstruction on urine flow in rabbits. Journal of Physiology (Lond), 503: 833-840.

 

 

30. Ravi, K. (1998). Vagal afferent mechanisms of airway defense. In: Proceedings of the symposium on “Respiratory control mechanisms and sensations” edi. By A.S. Paintal and A. Anand, pp. 42-65.

 

 

31. Ravi, K. and Singh, M. (1999). Reflex changes in heart rate during chemoreceptor stimulation in monkeys. Canadian. Journal of Physiology & Pharmacology, 77: 787-795.

 

 

32. Deep, V., Singh, M. and Ravi, K. (2001). Role of vagal afferents in the reflex responses to lobeline and capsaicin in monkeys. Respiration Physiology, 125 (3): 155-168.

 

 

33. Ravi, K. (2002). Airway rapidly adapting receptors, inflammatory mediators and asthma. In: Trends in Physiological Sciences: Cells to System, edited. by M. Fahim, pp. 364-386, Serials Publications, New Delhi.

 

 

34. Ravi, K. (2002). Airway rapidly adapting receptors- sensors of pulmonary extavascular fluid volume – An invited review, Indian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology, 46(3): 264-278.

 

 

35. Gunawardena, S, and Ravi, K, Longhurst, J.C., Kaufman, M.P, Amy Ma, Milo Bravo and Kappagoda, C.T. (2002). Responses of C-fiber afferents of the rabbit airway and lungs to changes in extra-vascular fluid volume. Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology, 132: 239-251.

 

 

36. Ravi K, (2003). Basic Research on Respiratory Physiology with Relevance to Clinical Syndromes in Acute Respiratory Diseases. An Overview. In : Status of Respiratory Diseases in India – The Environment and The Infection. Ed. D Raghunath and R Nayak, Tata McGraw – Hill Publishing Company Limited, New Delhi, Vol. 4 pp 29-47.

 

 

37. Ma, AA,  Ravi, K, Bravo, EM and Kappagoda, CT (2004). Effects of gadolinium chloride on slowly adapting and rapidly adapting receptors of the rabbit lung. Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology, 141: 125-135.

 

 

38. McCormick, KM, Gunawardena, S, Ravi, K, Bravo, EM and Kappagoda, CT (2004). Role of nitric oxide in the reflex diuresis in rabbits during pulmonary lymphatic obstruction. Experimental Physiology, 89(4): 487-496.

 

 

39. Pankaj Kumar, Madhu Khanna, Vikram Srivastava, Yogesh Kumar Tyagi, Hanumanthrao G. Raj, and K. Ravi (2005). Effect of quercetin supplementation on lung antioxidants after experimental influenza virus infection. Experimental Lung Research, 31: 1-11

 

 

40. Kappagoda, CT and Ravi, K (2006). The rapidly adapting receptors in mammalian airways and their responses to changes in extravascular fluid volume. Experimental Physiology, 91: 647-654

 

 

41. Ravi, K and Vijayan, V.K (2006). A tribute to Professor Autar Singh Paintal (1925-2004). Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology, 580: 1-8.

 

 

42. Ravi, K (2007). Mechanisms of sensory transduction in cardiopulmonary receptors. In: Current trends in Pharmacology, Edi. by A. Ray and K. Gulati, I.K. International Publishing House, New Delhi, pp. 285-298.

 

 

43. Kallam, K.M., Edirisinghe, I., Balasuriya, U.B.R., Gunawardena, S., Bravo, E.M., Ravi, K and Kappagoda, C.T. (2007). Effects of mitral regurgitation on the reflex diuresis to pulmonary lymphatic obstruction in rabbits. Experimental Lung Research, 33:5, 259-275.

 

 

44.  Ravi, K and Kappagoda, C.T. (2008). Left ventricular dysfunction and pulmonary extravascular fluid volume – physiological basis for symptoms. Indian Journal of Chest Diseases and Allied Sciences (invited review) 50: 7-18.

 

 

45. Ravi K and Kappagoda, C T (2009). Rapidly adapting receptors in acute heart failure and their impact on dyspnea. Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology, 167: 107-115.

 

 

46. Ravi K. Cough: Pharmacological approaches to a physiological response. (2009). In: Recent Advances in Herbal Drug Research and Therapy. Edi. by A. Ray and K. Gulati, I.K. International Publishing House, New Delhi, Chapter 15 pp 189-200.

 

 

47. Singh TD, Patial K Vijayan VK and Ravi K. (2009) Oxidative stress and obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. Indian Journal of Chest Diseases and Allied Sciences, 51: 217-224.

 

 

48. Omanwar S, Ravi K and Fahim M (2011). Persistence of EDHF pathway and impairment  of the nitric oxide pathway after chronic mercury chloride exposure in rats: Mechanisms of endothelial dysfunction. Hum Exp Toxicol. Nov.30(11): 1777-1784.

 

 

49. Payal Bhalla, Narinder Pal Singh and Krishnan Ravi (2011). Attenuation of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor induced cough by iron supplementation: role of nitric oxide. Journal of the Renin –Angiotensin-Aldosterone System: 12(4): 491-497.

 

 

50. Singh TD, Patial K Vijayan VK and Ravi K (2011). Role of Nitric oxide in the diuresis and natriuresis occurring in patients with obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome. Indian Journal of Chest Diseases and Allied Sciences, 53: 11-20.

 

 

51. Sadasivam K, Patial K Vijayan VK and Ravi K (2011). Anti-oxidant treatment    in  obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. Indian Journal of chest diseases and allied sciences; 53: 153-162.

 

 

52. Bhagat R, Yasir A, Vashisht A, Kulshreshtha R, Singh SB and Ravi K (2011).    High altitudesimulation, substance P and airway rapidly adapting receptor activity in rabbits. Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology. 178: 329-336.

 

 

53. Ravi K (2011). Translational approach to treatment of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome in man. In proceedings of the symposium on translational research in new drug development (in Press).

 

 

54-60. Ravi K (2011). Respiration. In: Best and Taylor’s Physiological Basis of Medical Practice. Ed: O.P. Tandon and Y. Tripathi, Lippincott Williams and Wilkins, Wolters Kluwer Health,    Delhi, Chapters 36-42, pp579-675 (revised these chapters).

 

 

61. Ravi K (2012). Anti-oxidant therapy in obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. Lambert Academic Publishing Company, Germany (In Press).

 

 

 

2.  Dr. Vishal Bansal, Assistant Professor

 

 

 

Dr. Bansal is a clinician scientist working as an Assistant Professor in Department of Physiology. He is a medical graduate and has done post-graduation (MD) in Physiology from Maulana Azad Medical College, New Delhi and has obtained his doctoral degree from Faculty of Medical Sciences, University of Delhi, Delhi. Dr. Bansal is a Member of National Academy of Medical Sciences (MNAMS), India and is a qualified Diplomate of National Board (DNB) in Physiology.

 

 

 

 

During his doctoral research, Dr. Bansal developed a model for coronary artery blockade in rabbits and examined the mechanisms of action of oestrogen on vascular smooth muscles. He has also investigated the effects of hyperosmotic solutions on airway smooth muscles of guinea pigs with bronchial hyper-reactivity.

 

 

 

 

Dr. Bansal has undertaken a yearlong post-graduate training in ‘Pulmonary Rehabilitation’ at West Park Healthcare Centre, University of Toronto, Canada under the guidance of Professor Roger Goldstein and has established a state of the art, ‘Cardio-Pulmonary Rehabilitation Clinic’ at V. P. Chest Institute for management of patients suffering from chronic respiratory diseases such as Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD), Interstitial Lung Diseases (ILD), Post-tuberculosis Sequelae, Bronchiectasis and Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA).

 

 

 

 

Apart from providing clinical services, he is involved in conducting research in patients undergoing pulmonary rehabilitation program for better understanding of the chronic respiratory disease process and to optimize their management strategies.

 

 

 

Dr. Bansal has supervised and is currently supervising post-graduate medical and doctoral students. He has presented his research work in national and international conferences and has several publications in reputed journals.  

 

 

 

b)     Research Areas:

 

 

 

1. Cardio-Pulmonary Rehabilitation in chronic respiratory patients

 

 

 

(Clinical research & services)

 

 

 

2. Investigating cardiovascular regulatory mechanisms and airway & vascular smooth muscle function in normal and disease models of small laboratory animals.

 

 

 

(Experimental research)

 

 

 

c)      Ongoing and completed Research Projects:

 

 

 

1)      Ongoing Projects:

 

 

 

1. Effect of Pulmonary Rehabilitation on Cardiac Autonomic Dysfunction in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease.

 

2. Comparative evaluation of Cardio-respiratory responses during six-minute walk test in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and interstitial lung diseases.

  

3. Effect of the addition of balance training to pulmonary rehabilitation for patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease.

 

 

(Ph.D. co-supervisor).

 

 

 

4. Endothelial dysfunction in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. (MD co-supervisor).

 

 

 

2)      Completed Projects:

 

 

1. Role of Epithelium in the Airway Responses to Hyperosmotic Solutions in Normal and Sensitized Guinea Pigs. (M.D. Supervisor)

 

2. Effect of Pulmonary Rehabilitation on Systemic inflammation, Muscle mass and Functional status in Post-tuberculosis Sequelae. (MD co-supervisor).

 

 

3. Effect of Pulmonary Rehabilitation on Systemic inflammation, Muscle mass and Functional status in Interstitial Lung Diseases. (MD co-supervisor).

 

 

 

4. Effect of Pulmonary Rehabilitation on Systemic inflammation, Oxidative stress and Functional status in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease. (MD co-supervisor).

 

 

5. Cardiac Autonomic Dysfunction in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (MD co-supervisor).

 

 

6. Effect of Ipratropium and Salbutamol on Heart Rate Variability in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease. (MD co-supervisor).

 

 

 

7. The effect of course layout on six-minute walk distance (6MWD) in COPD: a prospective within subject study.

 

 

 

8. The In-patient Pulmonary Rehabilitation cohort of 2001: Comparison of patient’s characteristics and their five year outcome.

 

 

 

9. Cardio-protective role & mechanism of action of 17 b - Estradiol in anaesthetized animals.

 

 

3)      Extra-mural Funded Projects:  

 

 

 

 

 

 
S. No.

 

 

 

 
Name of the Investigators

 

 

 

 
Title of the Project

 

 

 

 
Funding Agency and Duration

 

 

 

 
Budget

 

 
(Rs.)

 

 

 

1.

 

 

 

Prof. M. Fahim,

 

Dr. Vishal Bansal

 

 

 

Cardio - Protective Role and Mechanism of Action of 17-b Estradiol in Anaesthetized Animals

 

 

 

 

Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR);

(2003-2006)

 

 

 

 

 

7,62,167

 

 

 

2.

 

 

 

Dr. Dina Brooks,

 

Dr. Kylie Hill,

 

Dr. Roger Goldstein,

 

Mr. Tom Dolmage

 

Dr. Vishal Bansal

 

 

 

The effect of changing track layout on six-minute walk distance (6MWD) in COPD: a prospective within subject study.

 

 

 

 

 

Physiotherapy Foundation of Canada (PFC);

 

(July, 2007-June, 2008, One year)

 

 

 

 

 

2,00,000

 

(CA$ 5,000)

 

4) Providing Cardio-pulmonary Rehabilitation Services:

 

 

 

Year-wise breakup of number of patients attended to in the cardio-pulmonary rehabilitation clinic.

 

 

 

 

 

 
Year

 

(1st Jan-31st Dec)

 

 
2008

 

 
2009

 

 
2010

 

 
2011

 

 
Explained Breathing Retraining

 

 
116

 

 
94

 

 
364

 

 
336

 

 
Completed Rehabilitation Program

 

 
24

 

 
34

 

 
(Out of 47 enrolled)

 

 
17

 

 
(Out of 34 enrolled)

 

 
19

 

 
(Out of 55 enrolled)

 

 
Continuing Maintenance Program

 

 
8

 

 
2

 

 
12

 

 
14

 

 

d)     List of Publications:

 

 

 

 

1)      Chapters in Book:

 

 

Reviewed and contributed in following chapters of ‘Best & Taylor’s Physiological Basis of Medical Practice’, 13th Edition, published by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Wolters Kluwer Health (India). Released on 15th October 2011.

 

 

 

a. Chapter 43 : Introduction to the Function and Control of the Gastrointestinal System.

 

 

 

 

b. Chapter 46 : Biliary Secretion and Excretion

 

 

 

c. Chapter 57 : The Male Reproductive System 

 

 

 

2) Vishal Bansal: Pulmonary Rehabilitation: A New Hope For Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Patients.Al Ameen J Med Sci (2011); 4(1): 98-99.

 

 

 

 

3) Vishal Bansal, Kylie Hill, Thomas E. Dolmage, Dina Brooks, Lynda Woon and Roger S. Goldstein. Repeat pulmonary rehabilitation programs confer similar increases in functional exercise capacity to initial programs. J. Cardiopulm. Rehabil. Prev. 2008 Nov-Dec; 28(6): 410-414.

 

 

 

 

4) Vishal Bansal, Kylie Hill,Thomas E. Dolmage, Dina Brooks, Lynda Woon and Roger S. Goldstein. Modifying track layout from straight to circular has a modest effect on the six-minute walk distance. Chest 2008; 133: 1155-1160

 

 

 

 

5) Hanif K., Fahim M., Pavar M. C., Bansal V. & Pasha S.: Hypotensive effect of novel chimeric peptides of met-enkephalin and FMRFa. Regulatory Peptide 2005; 125: pp151-161.